Superoxide anion production by neutrophils is essential for host defense against microbes. Superoxide anion generates other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are very toxic for microbes and host cells, therefore their excessive production could induce inflammatory reactions and tissue injury. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) elevating agents are considered to be physiological inhibitors of superoxide production by neutrophils but the mechanisms involved in this inhibitory effect are poorly understood. Superoxide is produced by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a complex enzyme composed of two membrane subunits, gp91phox or NOX2 and p22phox, and four cytosolic components p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and Rac2. Except Rac2, these proteins are known to be phosphorylated upon neutrophil stimulation. Here we show that forskolin, an activator of the adenylate cyclase-cAMP-PKA pathway, induced phosphorylation of gp91phox/NOX2 and inhibited fMLF-induced NADPH oxidase activation in human neutrophils. H89, a PKA inhibitor prevented the forskolin-induced phosphorylation of gp91phox and restored NADPH oxidase activation. Furthermore, PKA phosphorylated the recombinant gp91phox/NOX2-cytosolic C-terminal region in vitro only on a few specific peptides containing serine residues, as compared to PKC. Interestingly, phosphorylation of NOX2-Cter by PKA alone did not induce interaction with the cytosolic components p47phox, p67phox and Rac2, however it induced inhibition of PKC-induced interaction. Furthermore, PKA alone did not induce NOX2 electron transfer activity, however it inhibited PKC-induced activation. These results suggest that PKA phosphorylates NOX2 in human neutrophils, a process essential to limit ROS production and inflammation under physiological conditions. Our data identify the cAMP-PKA-NOX2-axis as a critical gatekeeper of neutrophil ROS production.