The production of superoxide anions and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils is necessary for host defense against microbes. However, excessive ROS production can induce cell damage that participates in the inflammatory response. Superoxide anions are produced by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a multicomponent enzyme system consisting of two transmembrane proteins (gp91phox/NOX2 and p22phox) and four soluble cytosolic proteins (p40phox, p47phox, p67phox and the small G proteins Rac1/2). Stimulation of neutrophils by various agonists, such as the bacterial peptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF), induces NADPH oxidase activation and superoxide production, a process that is enhanced by the pro-inflammatory cytokines such as GM-CSF. The pathways involved in this GM-CSF-induced up-regulation or priming are not fully understood. Here we show that GM-CSF induces the activation of the prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 in human neutrophils. Juglone and PiB, two selective Pin1 inhibitors, were able to block GM-CSF-induced priming of ROS production by human neutrophils. Interestingly, GM-CSF induced Pin1 binding to phosphorylated p47phox at Ser345. Neutrophils isolated from synovial fluid of patients with rheumatoid arthritis are known to be primed. Here we show that Pin1 activity was also increased in these neutrophils and that Pin1 inhibitors effectively inhibited ROS hyperproduction by the same cells. These results suggest that the prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 may control GM-CSF-induced priming of ROS production by neutrophils and priming of neutrophils in synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Pharmacological targeting of Pin1 may be a valuable approach to the treatment of inflammation.