One anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) is associated with similar metabolic improvements and weight loss as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). However, this bariatric procedure is still controversial as it is suspected to result in undernutrition. Reducing the size of the biliopancreatic limb of OAGB could be essential to maintain positive outcomes while preventing side effects. The objective of this study was to compare and contrast outcomes of OAGB with two different biliopancreatic limb lengths to RYGB and Sham surgery in obese and non-obese rats. Lean and diet-induced obese Wistar rats were operated on RYGB, OAGB with a short (15 cm OAGB-15) or a long (35 cm OAGB-35) biliopancreatic limb or Sham surgery. Body weight and food intake were monitored over 30 weeks, and rats underwent oral glucose and insulin tolerance tests with a pancreatic and gut hormone secretion assay. Macronutrient absorption was determined by fecal analyses. Statistical analyses used non-parametric one-way or two-way ANOVA tests. Compared to Sham rats, RYGB, OAGB-15 and OAGB-35 rats displayed a significant reduced weight. Weight loss was greater after OAGB-35 than after OAGB-15 or Sham surgery because of transient malabsorption. All OAGB- and RYGB-operated rats displayed an improved pancreatic and gut hormone secretion in response to a meal compared to Sham rats, these effects were independent of limb length, rat weight, and maintained overtime. In conclusion, glucose homeostasis was similarly improved in obese and non-obese OAGB-15 and OAGB-35 rats suggesting that shortening the biliopancreatic limb can improve the metabolic parameters without a major influence on weight.