Hypothalamic neuropeptides named hypocretin/orexins which were identified in 1998 regulate critical functions such as wakefulness in the central nervous system. These past 20 years had revealed that orexins/receptors system was also present in the peripheral nervous system where they participated to the regulation of multiple functions including blood pressure regulation, intestinal motility, hormone secretion, lipolyze and reproduction functions. Associated to these peripheral functions, it was found that orexins and their receptors were involved in various diseases such as acute/chronic inflammation, metabolic syndrome and cancers. The present review suggests that orexins or the orexin neural circuitry represent potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of multiple pathologies related to inflammation including intestinal bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and septic shock, obesity and digestive cancers.