Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) often induces gastroesophageal reflux, with few and discordant long-term data on the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE) in operated patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of SG on esogastric mucosa in a rat model at 24 weeks postoperatively, which corresponds to approximately 18 years in humans. After 3 months of a high-fat diet, obese male Wistar rats were subjected to SG (n = 7) or sham surgery (n = 9). Esophageal and gastric bile acid (BA) concentrations were measured at sacrifice, at 24 weeks postoperatively. Esophageal and gastric tissues were analyzed by routine histology. The esophageal mucosa of the SG rats (n = 6) was not significantly different in comparison to that of the sham rats (n = 8), with no esophagitis or BE. However, there was more antral and fundic foveolar hyperplasia in the mucosa of the residual stomach 24 weeks after SG than in the sham group (p < 0.001). Luminal esogastric BA concentrations did not differ between the two groups. In our study, SG induced gastric foveolar hyperplasia but no esophageal lesions at 24 weeks postoperatively in obese rats. Therefore, long-term endoscopic esophageal follow-up that is recommended in humans after SG to detect BE may also be useful for detecting gastric lesions.