Hepatocholangiocarcinoma, fibrolamellar carcinoma, hepatic haemangioendothelioma and hepatic angiosarcoma represent less than 5% of primary liver cancers. Fibrolamellar carcinoma and hepatic haemangioendothelioma are driven by unique somatic genetic alterations (DNAJB1-PRKCA and CAMTA1-WWTR1 fusions, respectively), while the pathogenesis of hepatocholangiocarcinoma remains more complex, as suggested by its histological diversity. Histology is the gold standard for diagnosis, which remains challenging even in an expert centre because of the low incidences of these liver cancers. Resection, when feasible, is the cornerstone of treatment, together with liver transplantation for hepatic haemangioendothelioma. The role of locoregional therapies and systemic treatments remains poorly studied. In this review, we aim to describe the recent advances in terms of diagnosis and clinical management of these rare primary liver cancers.