Background: Because of increased access to kidney transplantation in elderly subjects, the prevalence of monoclonal gammopathies of unknown significance (MGUS) in kidney transplantation (KT) is growing. However, little is known about the consequences of MGUS on long-term outcomes.

Methods: We identified 70 recipients with MGUS present at transplantation (KTMG) and 114 patients with MGUS occurring after KT (DNMG), among 3059 patients who underwent a KT in two French kidney transplantation centers. We compared outcomes of KTMG with those of matched controls.

Results: Baseline characteristics were similar except for an older age in KTMG compared with the DNMG group (62 vs 57 years, P = .03). Transient MGUS occurred more frequently in DNMG patients (45% vs 24%, P = .007). When compared with matched controls without MGUS, KTMG patients showed higher frequency and earlier post-transplant solid cancers (15% vs 5%, P = .04) and a trend for more bacterial infections (63% vs 48%, P = .08), without difference regarding patient and graft survival, rejection episodes or hematological complications. KTMG patients with an abnormal kappa/lambda ratio and/or severe hypogammaglobulinemia at the time of KT experienced shorter overall survival.

Conclusions: MGUS detection at the time of KT is neither associated with a higher occurrence of graft rejection, nor adversely affects graft or overall survival. MGUS should not contraindicate KT. However, MGUS at the time of KT may be associated with higher risk of early neoplastic and infectious complications and warrants prolonged surveillance. Measurement of serum free light chain should be performed before transplant to refine the risk evaluation of KTMG patients and propose personalized follow-up and immunosuppression.