In Europe, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) has reached the endemic rate of 25%. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of MS. Its definition is histological, bringing together the different lesions associated with hepatic steatosis (fat deposits on more than 5% of hepatocytes) without alcohol consumption and following exclusion of other causes. MS and NAFLD are implicated in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). At present, HCC and ICC involving MS represent 15-20% and 20-30% respectively of indications for hepatic resection in HCC and ICC. Moreover, in the industrialized nations NAFLD is tending to become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation. MS patients combine the operative risk associated with their general condition and comorbidities and the risk associated with the presence and/or severity of NAFLD. Following hepatic resection in cases of HCC and ICC complicating MS, the morbidity rate ranges from 20 to 30%, and due to cardiovascular and infectious complications, post-transplantation mortality is heightened. The operative risk incurred by MS patients necessitates appropriate management including: (i) precise characterization of the subjacent liver; (ii) an accurately targeted approach privileging detection and optimization of treatment taking into account the relevant cardiovascular risk factors; (iii) a surgical strategy adapted to the histology of the underlying liver, with optimization of the volume of the remaining (postoperative) liver.