JAK2V617F mutation is associated with an increased risk for athero-thrombotic cardiovascular disease, but its role in aortic disease development and complications remains unknown. In a cohort of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm, JAK2V617F mutation was identified as an independent risk factor for dilation of both the ascending and descending thoracic aorta. Using single-cell RNA-seq, complementary genetically-modified mouse models, as well as pharmacological approaches, we found that JAK2V617F mutation was associated with a pathogenic pro-inflammatory phenotype of perivascular tissue-resident macrophages, which promoted deleterious aortic wall remodeling at early stages, and dissecting aneurysm through the recruitment of circulating monocytes at later stages. Finally, genetic manipulation of tissue-resident macrophages, or treatment with a Jak2 inhibitor, ruxolitinib, mitigated aortic wall inflammation and reduced aortic dilation and rupture. Overall, JAK2V617F mutation drives vascular resident macrophages toward a pathogenic phenotype and promotes dissecting aortic aneurysm.