Purpose To determine the relationship of liver fibrosis, inflammation, and steatosis with the magnetic resonance (MR) viscoelastic and diffusion parameters in patients with chronic liver disease and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the imaging parameters in staging liver fibrosis. Materials and Methods Consecutive patients with chronic liver disease scheduled for liver biopsy were prospectively recruited from November 2010 to October 2012 for this institutional review board-approved study after they provided written informed consent. Sixty-eight patients underwent three-dimensional MR elastography and intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging with a 1.5-T MR system. Fibrosis, inflammation, and steatosis were assessed with the METAVIR and steatosis, activity, and fibrosis (or SAF) scoring systems. Spearman correlation and multiple regression analyses were performed to determine the relationship between liver fibrosis, inflammation, steatosis, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and viscoelastic and diffusion parameters. The accuracy of three-dimensional MR elastography and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the determination of fibrosis stage was assessed with Obuchowski measures. Results At multiple regression analysis, fibrosis was the only variable associated with viscoelastic parameters (β = 0.6, P < .001, R2 = 0.33 for shear modulus; β = 0.6, P < .001, R2 = 0.32 for elasticity). Fibrosis had a weaker independent association with the apparent diffusion coefficient (β = -0.3, P = .02, R2 = 0.33) than did steatosis (β = -0.5, P < .001, R2 = 0.33). Steatosis was the only factor independently associated with the pure diffusion coefficient (β = -0.4, P = .002, R2 = 0.22). Inflammation and ALT level were not associated with the viscoelastic or diffusion parameters. The diagnostic accuracy of fibrosis staging was significantly higher when measuring the shear modulus rather than the apparent diffusion coefficient (Obuchowski measures, 0.82 ± 0.04 vs 0.30 ± 0.06; P < .001). Conclusion Fibrosis is independently associated with the MR viscoelastic parameters and is less associated with the diffusion parameters than is steatosis. These results and those of diagnostic accuracy suggest that MR elastography should be preferred over diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the staging of liver fibrosis. © RSNA, 2016.