Extensive intestinal resection leads to Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS), the main cause of chronic intestinal failure. Colon preservation is crucial for spontaneous adaptation, to improve absorption and reduce parenteral nutrition dependence. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a promising approach in pathologies with dysbiosis as the one observed in SBS patients, was assessed in SBS rats with jejuno-colonic anastomosis. The evolution of weight and food intake, the lenght of intestinal villi and crypts and the composition of fecal microbiota of Sham and SBS rats, transplanted or not with high fat diet rat microbiota, were analyzed. All SBS rats lost weight, increased their food intake and exhibited jejunal and colonic hyperplasia. Microbiota composition of SBS rats, transplanted or not, was largely enriched with Lactobacillaceae, and α- and β-diversity were significantly different from Sham. The FMT altered microbiota composition and α- and β-diversity in Sham but not SBS rats. FMT from high fat diet rats was successfully engrafted in Sham, but failed to take hold in SBS rats, probably because of the specific luminal environment in colon of SBS subjects favoring aero-tolerant over anaerobic bacteria. Finally, the level of food intake in SBS rats was positively correlated with their Lactobacillaceae abundance. Microbiota transfer must be optimized and adapted to this specific SBS environment.