Introduction: Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) is a hematologic disorder that is an overlap syndrome between myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms, and can be associated with autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to describe kidney involvement in patients with CMML, their treatments, and outcomes.

Methods: We conducted a French and American multicenter retrospective study in 15 centers, identifying patients with CMML with acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), and urine abnormalities.

Results: Sixteen patients (males, n = 14; median age 76.5 years [71.9-83]) developed a kidney disease 6 months [1.6-25.6] after the diagnosis of CMML. At the time of kidney disease diagnosis, median urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio was 2 g/g [1.25-3.4], and median serum creatinine was 2.26 mg/dl [1.46-2.68]. Fourteen patients (87.5%) underwent a kidney biopsy, and the 2 main pathological findings were lysozyme nephropathy (56%) and renal infiltration by the CMML (37.5%). Ten patients received a new treatment following the CMML-associated kidney injury. Among patients with monitored kidney function, and after a median follow-up of 15 months [9.9-34.9], 4 patients had CKD stage 3, 4 had CKD stage 4, 1 had an end-stage kidney disease. In our patient series, 2 patients evolved to an acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 5 died. Compared with 116 CMML controls, patients who had a kidney involvement had a higher monocyte count (P < 0.001), had more CMML-1 (P = 0.005), were more susceptible to develop an AML (P = 0.02), and were more eligible to receive a specific hematologic treatment, with hydroxyurea, or hypomethylating agents (P < 0.001), but no survival difference was seen between the 2 groups (P = 0.6978).

Conclusion: In this cohort of patients with CMML with a kidney injury, the 2 most frequent renal complications were lysozyme-induced nephropathy and renal infiltration by the CMML. Kidney involvement should be closely monitored in patients with CMML.