Production of superoxide anion and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) by neutrophils has a vital role in host defense against microbes. However, over-production can induce cell injury participating to inflammation. Superoxide anion is produced by the phagocyte NADPH oxidase/NOX2, a multicomponent enzyme system consisting of six proteins: two trans-membrane proteins (gp91phox and p22phox) and four soluble cytosolic proteins (p40phox, p67phox, p47phox, and the small G-proteins, Rac1/2). Phosphorylation of p47phox on several serines regulates NADPH oxidase activation. LPS released by gram negative bacteria can enhance or prime neutrophil superoxide production in combination with other agonists such as the bacterial peptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). Since the pathways involved in LPS-induced priming are not completely understood, we investigated the role of the prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 in this process. Two different Pin1 inhibitors, PiB, and Juglone are able to block LPS-induced priming of ROS production by human neutrophils in a concentration dependent manner. PiB and Juglone did not inhibit LPS-induced CD11b translocation neither CD62L shedding. LPS induced an increase of Pin1 activity in neutrophils similar to TNFα and fMLP. Since the phosphorylation of p47phox on Ser345 is critical for NADPH oxidase up-regulation, we investigated the effect of LPS on this process. Results show that LPS induced the phosphorylation of p47phox mainly on serine 345 and induced the activation of p38MAPKinase and ERK1/2. These results suggest that the prolyl cis/trans isomerase Pin1 may control LPS-induced priming of superoxide production in human neutrophils. Pharmacological targeting of Pin1 could be a valuable approach in sepsis.