MicroRNAs [miRNAs], small non-coding RNAs, have recently been described as crucial contributors to intestinal homeostasis. They can interact with the gut microbiota in a reciprocal manner and deeply affect host health status, leading to several disorders when unbalanced. Inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract that co-occurs with alterations of the gut microbiota, and whose aetiology remains largely unclear. On one hand, host miRNA could be playing a relevant role in IBD pathophysiology by shaping the gut microbiota. The gut microbiome, on the other hand, may regulate the expression of host miRNAs, resulting in intestinal epithelial dysfunction, altered autophagy, and immune hyperactivation. Interestingly, it has been hypothesised that their reciprocal impact may be used for therapeutic goals. The recent review by Maite and Emilie describes the latest research and suggests mechanisms through which miRNA and intestinal microbiota, as joint actors, may participate specifically in IBD pathophysiology. This work discusses the diagnostic power and therapeutic potential resulting from their bidirectional communication and brings to light its future application in IBD. 

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