IgA Nephropathy (IgAN) is the main cause of primary glomerulonephritis, globally. This disease is associated with a wide range of clinical presentations, variable prognosis and a spectrum of histological findings. More than fifty years after its first description, this heterogeneity continues to complicate efforts to understand the pathogenesis. Nevertheless, involvement of the complement system in IgAN was identified early on. Dysfunction of the immunoglobulin A (IgA) system, the principal offender in this disease, including modification of isoforms and glycoforms of IgA1, the nature of immune complexes and autoantibodies to galactose deficient IgA1 might all be responsible for complement activation in IgAN. However, the specific mechanisms engaging complement are still under examination. Research in this domain should allow for identification of patients that may benefit from complement-targeted therapy, in the foreseeable future.